Freshwater - Issues and Conflicts


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syllabus.pngSYLLABUS REQUIREMENTS


1. The water system
The hydrological cycle
Examine the inputs, outputs, stores and transfers of the hydrological cycle. Discuss the causes and consequences of the changing balance between water stored in oceans and ice.
The water balance
Explain the concept of maximum sustainable yield of freshwater in terms of a balance between inputs and outputs.
3 hours
2. Drainage basins and flooding
Drainage basins
Analyse the functioning of a drainage basin as an open system with inputs, outputs, transfers, stores and feedback loops.

2 hours
Discharge
Define stream discharge. Examine its relationship to stream flow and channel shape.

1 hour
Hydrographs
Describe the characteristics of a hydrograph. Analyse the reasons for spatial and temporal (short term and long term) variations in hydrographs. Examine the role of hydrographs in forecasting the magnitude, spatial extent and timing of floods.

3 hours
Floods
Discuss the natural and human causes and consequences of a specific river flood.

3 hours
3. Management issues and strategies
Dams and reservoirs
Analyse the hydrological changes resulting from the construction of dams and reservoirs. Examine the costs and benefits of dams and reservoirs as part of multi-purpose schemes.

2 hours
Flood plain management
Explain the stream channel processes (erosion, transport, deposition) and explain the resultant landforms found on floodplains.
Examine the human modifications of a floodplain and their effect on the size and probability of floods.
Evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative stream management strategies.

3 hours
Ground water management
Explain the functioning and management of artesian basins and aquifers, distinguishing between natural and artificial recharge. Examine the environmental impacts of ground water abstraction.

2 hours
Freshwater wetland management
Describe the role of wetlands as a water resource. Evaluate the effectiveness of the management strategies that have been adopted in a major wetland.

2 hours
Irrigation and agriculture
Examine the environmental impacts of agriculture and irrigation on water quality: salinization, agro-chemical runoff, the pollution of ground water, the eutrophication of lakes, rivers and wetlands.

3 hours
4. Competing demands for water
Conflicts at the local or national scale
Conflicts at the international scale
Examine the competing demands for water in a specific river basin. Evaluate the strategies that have been adopted to meet these demands.
Discuss an example of an international conflict related to freshwater.

6 hours

resources.pngONLINE RESOURCES

Best content in IB Geography Freshwater | Diigo - Groups


skills.pngGEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS


This Optional Theme could include:

Topographic maps, satellite images and cross-profiles (sections).

skills.pngGLOSSARY


Drainage basin
The area drained by a river and its tributaries.
Drainage divide
(Also known as a watershed)—the line defining the boundary of a river or stream drainage basin and separating it from adjacent basin(s).
Maximum sustainable yield
The maximum level of extraction of water that can be maintained for a given area, indefinitely.
Wetlands
Areas that are regularly saturated by surface water or groundwater, including freshwater marshes, swamps and bogs.

resources.pngTEXTBOOK RESOURCES


1. The water system
the hydrological cycle
the water balance
Waugh, An Integrated Approach, Third Edition: p.214
Codrington, Planet Geographhy, Fourth Editiion: p.150
Bishop and Prosser, Water Resources: Process and Management, 2000: p.12
2. Drainage basins and flooding
drainage basins
discharge
hydrographs
floods
Waugh, An Integrated Approach, Third Edition: p.58, p.68-70, p.61-63.
Codrington, Planet Geographhy, Fourth Editiion: p.153, p.151.
Bishop and Prosser, Water Resources: Process and Management, 2000: p.9, p. 25-26, p. 27-30, p. 108-129.
3. Management issues and strategies
dams and reservoirs
flood plain management
ground water management
freshwater wetland management
irrigation and agriculture
Waugh, An Integrated Approach, Third Edition: Mississippi p. 87-90, Yangtze p.91-92, Colorado p.93-97, p.494-496.
Bishop and Prosser, Water Resources: Process and Management, 2000: p.102-107, p.130-145, p.165-172
4. Competing demands for water
conflicts at the local or national scale
conflicts at the international scale