Urban Environments


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syllabus.pngSYLLABUS REQUIREMENTS


1. Urban populations

urbanization
Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns.

inward movement
Explain the processes of centripetal movements (rural–urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanization /urban renewal).

outward movement
Explain the processes of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counter-urbanization, urban sprawl).

natural change
Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density within urban areas.

the global megacity
Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population over 10 million).
2 hours

2. Urban land use

residential areas
Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity and family status (stage in life-cycle).
Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter settlements, areas of low-cost housing and inner-city areas).
Analyse the causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups since the1980s.
4 hours

areas of economic activity
Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning of urban and suburban functions and the internal structure of the central business district (CBD).
Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas.
Analyse the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service and manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites.
4 hours

3. Urban Stress

urban microclimate:
Examine the effects of structures and human activity on urban microclimates, including the urban heat island effect and air pollution.
4 hours

other types of environmental and social stress
Analyse the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion, overcrowding and noise, depletion of green space, waste overburden, poor quality housing, social deprivation, crime and inequality.
4 hours

4. The sustainable city
the city as a system
Describe the city as a system in terms of:
inputs—energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
outputs—solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people.
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs.
2 hours
case studies
Referring to at least two city case studies discuss the concepts of:
sustainable city management
the urban ecological footprint.
4 hours
sustainable strategies
Evaluate one case study of each of the following:
one socially sustainable housing management strategy
one environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy
one strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from in-migration.
6 hours

resources.pngONLINE RESOURCES

Best content in IB Geography Urban Environments | Diigo - Groups

skills.pngGEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS


measures of concentration and dispersion (including nearest neighbour and location quotients)
Ÿ measures of spatial interactions
Ÿ measures of diversity
Ÿ observations
Ÿ opinions, values and perceptions

Processing and interpreting
Ÿ classify data and information
Ÿ analyse data and information
Ÿ describe patterns, trends and relationships
Ÿ make generalizations and identify anomalies
Ÿ make inferences and predictions
Ÿ make and justify decisions
Ÿ draw conclusions
Ÿ evaluate methodology

resources.pngTEXTBOOK RESOURCES


1. Urban populations

Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 4 to 15.

Changing Environments. Digby pages 233 to 236. 245 to 252

Explain the processes of centripetal movements (rural–urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanization /urban renewal).
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 128 to 129, 64

Explain the processes of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counter-urbanization, urban sprawl).
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 130 to 133

Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density within urban areas.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 15.

Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population over 10 million).
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 7 and 8

2. Urban land use

Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity and family status (stage in life-cycle).

Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter settlements, areas of low-cost housing and inner-city areas).

Analyse the causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups since the1980s.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 64
Changing Environments. Digby pages 294 to 307

Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 70 to 74

Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 64 to 82

Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning of urban and suburban functions and the internal structure of the central business district (CBD).

Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas.

Analyse the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service and manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 103 to 107
Changing Environments. Digby pages 253 to 277

Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 109 to 110

Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 111 to 115

3. Urban Stress

Examine the effects of structures and human activity on urban microclimates, including the urban heat island effect and air pollution.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 157 to 172

AS Geography. Bowen and Pallister. pages 72 to 79

Analyse the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion, overcrowding and noise, depletion of green space, waste overburden, poor quality housing, social deprivation, crime and inequality.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 157 to 172
Changing Environments. Digby pages 253 to 277
Changing Environments. Digby pages 294 to 307

4. The sustainable city
Describe the city as a system in terms of:
inputs—energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture)
outputs—solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people.
Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 157 to 172

Changing Environments. Digby pages 308 to 318

Evaluate one case study of each of the following:
one socially sustainable housing management strategy
one environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy
one strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from in-migration.
Urbanisation: Changing Environments Flint and Flint pages 157 to 172
Changing Environments. Digby pages 253 to 277
Changing Environments. Digby pages 308 318 to 277